Faculty of Management Working Paper Series

Abstract WPS 1/2017

Cooperation with bank as a competitiveness factor for the export-oriented company


  • Waldemar Kozioł


The present paper concerns the evaluation of the relationship between SMEs conducting export business and the banks that support them. The evaluation will assess the share of banks in financing these companies, the reason for establishing a relationship, the intensity of the relationship and dependence of companies on the main partner bank. The analysis is based on research of Polish exporting businesses and was carried out by using standard EFIGE questionnaires.


Keywords: SME, banks, export capacity, export financing, bank services, debt concentration, bank-company relations

JEL Classification: D21, F13, F23, F39, G21



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Abstract WPS 4/2016

Macroprudential policy instruments and procyclicality of loan-loss provisions – cross-country evidence


  • Małgorzata Olszak
  • Iwona Kowalska
  • Sylwia Roszkowska


We analyze the effectiveness of various macroprudential policy instruments in reducing the procyclicality of loan-loss provisions (LLPs) using individual bank information from over 65 countries and applying the two-step GMM Blundell-Bond (1998) approach with robust standard errors. Our research identifies several new facts. Firstly, borrower restrictions are definitely more effective in reducing the procyclicality of loan-loss provisions than other macroprudential policy instruments. This effect is supported in both unconsolidated and consolidated data and is robust to several robustness checks. Secondly, dynamic provisions, large exposure concentration limits and taxes on specific assets are effective in reducing the procyclicality of loan-loss provisions. And finally, we find that both loan-to-value caps and debt-to-income ratios, are especially effective in reducing the procyclicality of LLP of large banks. Off-balance-sheet restrictions, concentration limits and taxes are also effective in reducing the procyclicality of LLP of large banks. Dynamic provisions reduce the procyclicality of LLP independently of bank size.

Keywords: macroprudential policy, loan-loss provisions, business cycle, procyclicality

JEL Classification: E32, G21, G28, G32



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Abstract WPS 3/2016



  • Małgorzata Olszak
  • Patrycja Chodnicka-Jaworska
  • Iwona Kowalska
  • Filip Świtała


In this paper we explore several new factors which may affect the procyclicality of loan-loss provisions. In particular, we test whether there are visible differences in sensitivity of loan-loss provisions to the business cycle between commercial and cooperative banks as well as between large, medium and small banks. We also aim to find out whether the level of bank capital ratio and the application of discretionary income-smoothing affect procyclicality of loan-loss provisions. Our results show that loan-loss provisions of banks are procyclical. This procyclicality is particularly visible and stronger in the sample of commercial banks. We also find that loan-loss provisions of large banks are more negatively affected by the business cycle than those of medium or small banks. We show that banks with low capital ratios exhibit increased procyclicality of loan-loss provisions. And finally, we also find empirical evidence that banks with a greater degree of discretionary income-smoothing have loan-loss provisions more negatively affected by the business cycle, and thus more procyclical.

Keywords: loan-loss provisions, procyclicality, bank size, capital ratio, discretionary income-smoothing

JEL Classification: G21, G28, G32, M41



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Abstract WPS 2/2016



  • Małgorzata Olszak
  • Sylwia Roszkowska
  • Iwona Kowalska


In this paper we ask about the capacity of macroprudential policies to reduce the positive association between loans growth and the capital ratio. We focus on aggregated macroprudential policy measures and on individual instruments and test whether their effect on the association between lending and capital depends on bank size, the economic development of a country as well as on the extent of capital account openness. Applying the GMM 2-step Blundell and Bond approach to a sample covering over 60 countries, we find that macroprudential policy instruments reduce the impact of capital on bank lending during both crisis and non-crisis times. This result is stronger in large banks than in other banks. Of individual macroprudential instruments, only borrower-targeted LTV caps and DTI ratio weaken the association between lending and capital. Our results also show that the effect of macroprudential policies on the association between lending and the capital ratio in non-crisis periods is stronger in advanced countries than in emerging countries. Additionally, differentiating by the level of capital account openness, we find that macroprudential policies are more effective in increasing the resilience of banks and thus weakening the association between loan supply and capital ratio for relatively closed economies but less effective for relatively open economies. Generally, with our study we are able to support the view that macroprudential policy has the potential to curb the procyclical impact of bank capital on lending and therefore, the introduction of more restrictive international capital standards included in Basel III and of macroprudential policies are fully justified.

Keywords: loan supply, capital ratio, procyclicality, macroprudential policy

JEL Classification: E32, G21, G28, G32



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Abstract WPS 1/2016

Does it pay to be good?  An analysis of vice and virtue stock performance in the Eurozone


  • Toni Vide


This paper provides a performance analysis of vice and virtue stocks in the Eurozone for the period between January 2005 and December 2014. In order to do so, a vice index is created consisting out of listed Eurozone companies, operating in selected vice industries and is subsequently matched with a corresponding virtue index, which for the purpose of this analysis is represented by the DJSI Eurzone. The tools used to conduct the performance evaluation are the Sharpe ratio, the Capital asset pricing model and the Carhart’s four-factor model. The analysis indicates, no consistent out- or under- performance of one or the other index, yet the realized performance over the whole period favours the vice index. Consequently one can conclude, that from a statistical point of view, there is no substantial advantage or disadvantage in being “good” when investing into stocks, as such it is a matter of investor preference, with the note that historical returns do favour vice stocks.

Keywords:CAPM, Eurozone, Four factor model, Sharpe ratio, Virtue stocks, Vice stocks.

JEL Classification: G11; G15; G17



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Abstract WPS 7/2015

The impact of capital on lending in publicly-traded and privately- held banks in the EU


  • Małgorzata Olszak
  • Mateusz Pipień
  • Iwona Kowalska
  • Sylwia Roszkowska


This paper extends the literature on the link between lending and capital by examining the role of equity ownership structure for this link in banks operating in the European Union. As theory predicts, publicly-traded banks are more prone to heightened agency problems (moral hazard and adverse selection) due to dispersed ownership and therefore have stronger incentives to engage in excessive risk-taking especially in economic expansions. This may bring about procyclical lending effect in economic downturns. Theory also predicts that these banks are also more affected by capital market frictions in economic downturns. Applying Blundell and Bond (1998) two step robust GMM estimator we predict and find that the link between lending and capital in economic downturns is stronger in publicly-traded banks than in privately- held banks. Additionally, the link between lending and capital during expansions is stronger in the case of privately- held banks reporting unconsolidated data, but not for banks reporting consolidated financial reports. Finally, we find empirical support for the view that lending of privately- held banks is not constrained by capital ratio in economic downturns.

Keywords: loan supply, capital ratio, procyclicality,  equity ownership structure

JEL Classification: E32, G21, G28, G32



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